Archive for the ‘SQL’ Category

All valid HTTP 1.1 Status Codes simply explained.

HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, is the method by which clients (i.e. you) and servers communicate. When someone clicks a link, types in a URL or submits out a form, their browser sends a request to a server for information. It might be asking for a page, or sending data, but either way, that is called an HTTP Request. When a server receives that request, it sends back an HTTP Response, with information for the client. Usually, this is invisible, though I’m sure you’ve seen one of the very common Response codes – 404, indicating a page was not found. There are a fair few more status codes sent by servers, and the following is a list of the current ones in HTTP 1.1, along with an explanation of their meanings.

A more technical breakdown of HTTP 1.1 status codes and their meanings is available at http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec10.html. There are several versions of HTTP, but currently HTTP 1.1 is the most widely used.

Informational

  • 100 – Continue
    A status code of 100 indicates that (usually the first) part of a request has been received without any problems, and that the rest of the request should now be sent.
  • 101 – Switching Protocols
    HTTP 1.1 is just one type of protocol for transferring data on the web, and a status code of 101 indicates that the server is changing to the protocol it defines in the “Upgrade” header it returns to the client. For example, when requesting a page, a browser might receive a statis code of 101, followed by an “Upgrade” header showing that the server is changing to a different version of HTTP.

Successful

  • 200 – OK
    The 200 status code is by far the most common returned. It means, simply, that the request was received and understood and is being processed.
  • 201 – Created
    A 201 status code indicates that a request was successful and as a result, a resource has been created (for example a new page).
  • 202 – Accepted
    The status code 202 indicates that server has received and understood the request, and that it has been accepted for processing, although it may not be processed immediately.
  • 203 – Non-Authoritative Information
    A 203 status code means that the request was received and understood, and that information sent back about the response is from a third party, rather than the original server. This is virtually identical in meaning to a 200 status code.
  • 204 – No Content
    The 204 status code means that the request was received and understood, but that there is no need to send any data back.
  • 205 – Reset Content
    The 205 status code is a request from the server to the client to reset the document from which the original request was sent. For example, if a user fills out a form, and submits it, a status code of 205 means the server is asking the browser to clear the form.
  • 206 – Partial Content
    A status code of 206 is a response to a request for part of a document. This is used by advanced caching tools, when a user agent requests only a small part of a page, and just that section is returned.

Redirection

  • 300 – Multiple Choices
    The 300 status code indicates that a resource has moved. The response will also include a list of locations from which the user agent can select the most appropriate.
  • 301 – Moved Permanently
    A status code of 301 tells a client that the resource they asked for has permanently moved to a new location. The response should also include this location. It tells the client to use the new URL the next time it wants to fetch the same resource.
  • 302 – Found
    A status code of 302 tells a client that the resource they asked for has temporarily moved to a new location. The response should also include this location. It tells the client that it should carry on using the same URL to access this resource.
  • 303 – See Other
    A 303 status code indicates that the response to the request can be found at the specified URL, and should be retrieved from there. It does not mean that something has moved – it is simply specifying the address at which the response to the request can be found.
  • 304 – Not Modified
    The 304 status code is sent in response to a request (for a document) that asked for the document only if it was newer than the one the client already had. Normally, when a document is cached, the date it was cached is stored. The next time the document is viewed, the client asks the server if the document has changed. If not, the client just reloads the document from the cache.
  • 305 – Use Proxy
    A 305 status code tells the client that the requested resource has to be reached through a proxy, which will be specified in the response.
  • 307 – Temporary Redirect
    307 is the status code that is sent when a document is temporarily available at a different URL, which is also returned. There is very little difference between a 302 status code and a 307 status code. 307 was created as another, less ambiguous, version of the 302 status code.

Client Error

  • 400 – Bad Request
    A status code of 400 indicates that the server did not understand the request due to bad syntax.
  • 401 – Unauthorized
    A 401 status code indicates that before a resource can be accessed, the client must be authorised by the server.
  • 402 – Payment Required
    The 402 status code is not currently in use, being listed as “reserved for future use”.
  • 403 – Forbidden
    A 403 status code indicates that the client cannot access the requested resource. That might mean that the wrong username and password were sent in the request, or that the permissions on the server do not allow what was being asked.
  • 404 – Not Found
    The best known of them all, the 404 status code indicates that the requested resource was not found at the URL given, and the server has no idea how long for.
  • 405 – Method Not Allowed
    A 405 status code is returned when the client has tried to use a request method that the server does not allow. Request methods that are allowed should be sent with the response (common request methods are POST and GET).
  • 406 – Not Acceptable
    The 406 status code means that, although the server understood and processed the request, the response is of a form the client cannot understand. A client sends, as part of a request, headers indicating what types of data it can use, and a 406 error is returned when the response is of a type not i that list.
  • 407 – Proxy Authentication Required
    The 407 status code is very similar to the 401 status code, and means that the client must be authorised by the proxy before the request can proceed.
  • 408 – Request Timeout
    A 408 status code means that the client did not produce a request quickly enough. A server is set to only wait a certain amount of time for responses from clients, and a 408 status code indicates that time has passed.
  • 409 – Conflict
    A 409 status code indicates that the server was unable to complete the request, often because a file would need to be editted, created or deleted, and that file cannot be editted, created or deleted.
  • 410 – Gone
    A 410 status code is the 404’s lesser known cousin. It indicates that a resource has permanently gone (a 404 status code gives no indication if a resource has gine permanently or temporarily), and no new address is known for it.
  • 411 – Length Required
    The 411 status code occurs when a server refuses to process a request because a content length was not specified.
  • 412 – Precondition Failed
    A 412 status code indicates that one of the conditions the request was made under has failed.
  • 413 – Request Entity Too Large
    The 413 status code indicates that the request was larger than the server is able to handle, either due to physical constraints or to settings. Usually, this occurs when a file is sent using the POST method from a form, and the file is larger than the maximum size allowed in the server settings.
  • 414 – Request-URI Too Long
    The 414 status code indicates the the URL requested by the client was longer than it can process.
  • 415 – Unsupported Media Type
    A 415 status code is returned by a server to indicate that part of the request was in an unsupported format.
  • 416 – Requested Range Not Satisfiable
    A 416 status code indicates that the server was unable to fulfill the request. This may be, for example, because the client asked for the 800th-900th bytes of a document, but the document was only 200 bytes long.
  • 417 – Expectation Failed
    The 417 status code means that the server was unable to properly complete the request. One of the headers sent to the server, the “Expect” header, indicated an expectation the server could not meet.

Server Error

  • 500 – Internal Server Error
    A 500 status code (all too often seen by Perl programmers) indicates that the server encountered something it didn’t expect and was unable to complete the request.
  • 501 – Not Implemented
    The 501 status code indicates that the server does not support all that is needed for the request to be completed.
  • 502 – Bad Gateway
    A 502 status code indicates that a server, while acting as a proxy, received a response from a server further upstream that it judged invalid.
  • 503 – Service Unavailable
    A 503 status code is most often seen on extremely busy servers, and it indicates that the server was unable to complete the request due to a server overload.
  • 504 – Gateway Timeout
    A 504 status code is returned when a server acting as a proxy has waited too long for a response from a server further upstream.
  • 505 – HTTP Version Not Supported
    A 505 status code is returned when the HTTP version indicated in the request is no supported. The response should indicate which HTTP versions are supported.
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All Aboard the SQL Server Express!

All Aboard the SQL Server Express!

In today’s tutorial, web application development specialist Akash Mehta takes a look at Microsoft SQL Server Express and shows us how to build a simple web app. It’s a natural follow-up to an article we published last year about the Microsoft Web Platform Installer, which demonstrated how easy it is to set up a web server on Windows with PHP, IIS, and SQL Server Express.

After reminding us of the various open source applications that can be installed with the WPI, Akash then takes us through the process of setting up the development environment. Next we take a tour through the SQL Server Management Studio interface, to see how easy it is to setup and manage your databases. Once all the relevant components have been installed, you’ll learn how to build a simple project time tracker that can help to organize timing records and accurately bill clients.

By the time you’ve finished the tutorial, you’ll also be able to use standard SQL functions to create a simple report. If you really feel like challenging yourself, you can research T-SQL and go on to build a more complex report. Before you know it, you’ll have an SQL Server-driven PHP application up and running!

A big thankyou to Microsoft, who are sponsoring the quiz for this article. If you found the tutorial interesting, be sure to give the quiz a go – and if you’re one of the first 200 people to complete the quiz, you could snap up a copy of Microsoft SQL Server Developer Edition (please see quiz for terms and conditions) delivered to your door for FREE!

Microsoft Releases SQL Server 2008

Posted: October 29, 2008 in Forums, News, SQL

SQL Server 2008 has been released to manufacturing today!

The official News Release is re-posted here:

REDMOND, Wash. — Aug. 6, 2008 — Microsoft Corp. today announced the release to manufacturing of Microsoft SQL Server 2008, the new version of the company’s acclaimed data management and business intelligence platform. This version of SQL Server provides powerful new capabilities such as support for policy-based management, auditing, large-scale data warehousing, geospatial data, and advanced reporting and analysis services. SQL Server 2008 provides the trusted, productive and intelligent platform necessary for business-critical applications.

“Microsoft developed this release of SQL Server with the customer in mind,” said Ted Kummert, corporate vice president of the Data and Storage Platform Division at Microsoft. “SQL Server 2008 is the only major database that includes comprehensive, tightly integrated functionality for data management as well as advanced business intelligence out of the box. By offering a complete solution, we save customers time and money and allow them to focus on deriving the most value from their data assets.”

With more than 450,000 customer and partner downloads of SQL Server 2008’s Community Technology Previews (CTPs), more than 75 large-scale applications already in production and more than 1,350 applications being developed by nearly 1,000 independent software vendors (ISVs) on SQL Server 2008, it’s clear that customers and partners are excited about the capabilities now available in SQL Server 2008.

Tim Whitehorn, founder and chief executive officer of event management software provider ServiceU Corp., said, “We selected SQL Server 2008 because we can entrust it with our critical business applications. SQL Server 2008 is highly secure and reliable, and offers the best value on the market today. In addition, it accelerates the time frame for deploying new features and enhancements, and that to us makes SQL Server a winner.”

A number of enterprise customers from various industries are testing SQL Server 2008 including Clear Channel Communications Inc., Hilton Hotels Corp., Simon & Schuster Inc., Siemens AG and Xerox Corp., among many others.

SQL Server is an industry leader in both scalability and performance. It is the first and only database management system to be proven capable of delivering scalable results on TPC-E, the Transaction Processing Performance Council’s (TPC) newest and most challenging online transaction processing (OLTP) benchmark, with 13 published benchmarks to date.1 Also demonstrating the performance of SQL Server 2008, Unisys Corp. and Microsoft set a new extract, transform and load (ETL) performance record by loading 1 terabyte of data in less than 30 minutes using SQL Server 2008 Integration Services. In addition, SQL Server 2008 has proven its scalability in large-scale data warehousing, as demonstrated by its recent 10-terabyte TPC-H benchmark.2

“We saw a 35 percent improvement in throughput on the system that we upgraded to SQL Server 2008, with no code changes on our end,” said Gary Oberg, vice president of IT and development at Applied Discovery (a member of the LexisNexis group). “This translates straight to the bottom line for us, as the more documents we can upload, the more we can process.”

Microsoft is setting additional benchmark records with ISV solutions, including a world record on four-socket industry-standard blade servers in a three-tier SAP Sales and Distribution (SD) Standard Application Benchmark, and demonstrated the largest benchmark ever on the Siemens Teamcenter digital product life-cycle management solution, Microsoft Dynamics CRM, Microsoft Dynamics AX and the Camstar Manufacturing Execution System solution.

SQL Server is a key component of the Microsoft Application Platform, a suite of products and technologies designed to help customers build, run and manage dynamic business applications. SQL Server 2008 is available in the following editions:

SQL Server 2008 Enterprise. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise is a comprehensive data management and business intelligence platform that provides enterprise-class scalability, data warehousing, security, advanced analytics and reporting support for running business-critical applications. With this edition, it is possible to consolidate servers and perform large-scale online transactional processing.

SQL Server 2008 Standard. SQL Server 2008 Standard is a complete data management and business intelligence platform that provides best-in-class ease of use and manageability for running departmental applications.

SQL Server 2008 Workgroup. SQL Server 2008 Workgroup is a reliable data management and reporting platform that delivers secure, remote synchronization and management capabilities for running branch applications. This edition includes core database features and is easy to upgrade to the Standard or Enterprise edition.

SQL Server 2008 Web. SQL Server 2008 Web is designed for highly available, Internet-facing Web-serving environments running on Windows Server. SQL Server 2008 Web provides the tools necessary to support low-cost, large-scale, highly available Web applications or hosting solutions for customers.

SQL Server 2008 Developer. SQL Server 2008 Developer allows developers to build and test any type of application with SQL Server. This edition features all of the functionality of SQL Server Enterprise but is licensed only for development, test and demo use. Applications and databases developed on this edition can easily be upgraded to SQL Server 2008 Enterprise.

SQL Server 2008 Express. SQL Server 2008 Express is a free edition of SQL Server that features core database functionality including all of the new SQL Server 2008 data types, in a small footprint. This edition is ideal for learning and building desktop and small server applications, and for redistribution by ISVs.

SQL Server Compact 3.5. SQL Server Compact is a free embedded database designed for developers and is ideal for building stand-alone and occasionally connected applications for mobile devices, desktops and Web clients. SQL Server Compact runs on all Microsoft Windows platforms, including the Windows XP and Windows Vista operating systems, and on Pocket PC and smartphone devices.

Pricing and Availability
SQL Server 2008 is now available to MSDN and TechNet subscribers and will be available for evaluation download on Aug. 7, 2008. SQL Server 2008 Express and SQL Server Compact editions are available for free download today at http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver.

As previously announced, pricing for SQL Server will not increase with SQL Server 2008. More information is available at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/presskits/sqlserver.

1TPC benchmarks are produced by the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC). Full results are available at http://www.tpc.org. Results referenced are current as of July 29, 2008.
2HP Integrity Superdome, 63651 QphH@10TB, 38.54 $/QphH@10TB, available Aug. 30, 2008.

Microsoft unveils a road map for SQL Server “Kilimanjaro,” which will contain new BI capabilities. Microsoft officials also discuss plans for the DATAllegro integration with SQL Server, which they say will enable SQL Server to penetrate deeper into data warehouse environments by improving scalability.

Microsoft offered the public a glimpse of the future of SQL Server at its Business Intelligence Conference in Seattle.

During his conference keynote, Ted Kummert, vice president of Microsoft’s Data and Platform Storage division, laid out the company’s plans to build additional business intelligence capabilities into SQL Server. This version of SQL Server, code-named Kilimanjaro, will include self-service reporting updates and new BI functionality code-named Project Gemini.

According to Microsoft, through Project Gemini, users of SQL Server Kilimanjaro will be able to grab data and create their own BI applications and assets to share and collaborate on from within popular Microsoft Office productivity tools. The Gemini component of Kilimanjaro features a SharePoint midtier for publishing, collaboration and management; Excel-hosted Gemini client Self-service Data Preparation; and a column-based storage engine.

“Kilimanjaro will allow an end user to leverage the technology they are familiar with Excel [and] SharePoint to produce a report and share it with their colleagues for further collaboration,” said Tom Casey, GM of SQL Server Business Intelligence, in an interview with eWEEK. “It’s a combination really of self-service BI and knowledge management. Additionally, the environment is an IT managed one, so intelligence captured through the application will be transferred back into SQL Server. No more lost intelligence sitting in Excel files on the end user’s desktop.”

The new self-service reporting capabilities will include an upgrade to Report Builder as well as features such as a reusable component repository.

“One of the more groundbreaking features here is the composite reporting, or ‘grab-and-go’ reporting, capabilities [that allow] someone like the CFO to easily come in and pull a few charts into a report with [the] complete capability to drill down into data as needed,” Casey added.

The announcement comes roughly two months after SQL Server 2008 hit the streets. In his keynote, Kummert stressed the company will stick to plans to release major updates to SQL Server every 24 to 36 months. Kilimanjaro, however, will be available within the next 12 months via a community technology preview (CTP). Full availability is scheduled for 2010.

On the coattails of that announcement, Microsoft also clarified its road map for recently acquired DATAllegro. The integration effort is code-named Madison and will provide an appliancelike solution in collaboration with hardware partners Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Unisys, Bull Systems and EMC. Madison will be available via CTP in the next 12 months, with full availability in 2010.